(Granulocytopenia, Granulopenia, Neutropenia)
Agranulocytosis is a condition that results from failure of an individual's bone marrow to produce a sufficient quantity of white blood cells, or increased destruction of the white blood cells. Thus the white blood cell count will be low. Acquired agranulocytosis occurs most often as a result of medications or treatments rather than a congenital condition. Agranulocytosis usually responds well to treatment, so contact your doctor if you think you may have this condition.
White Blood Cells
Agranulocytosis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
• Congenital genetic abnormality
• Tumors, infections or other inflammations, or fibrosis of the bone marrow
• Toxins, autoimmune diseases, infections, and other causes
• Aplastic anemia
• Certain medications or treatments
o Chemotherapy treatment for cancer
o Many different drugs
A risk factor is something that increases your chance of getting a disease or condition. The following factors increase your chances of developing agranulocytosis. If you have any of these, tell your doctor:
• Undergoing chemotherapy treatment for cancer
• Taking certain drugs
• Exposure to certain chemical toxins or radiation
• Autoimmune diseases
• Enlargement of the spleen
• Vitamin B-12 or folate deficiency
• Leukemia or myelodysplastic syndromes
• Aplastic anemia or other diseases of the bone marrow
• Family history of certain genetic diseases
If you experience any of these symptoms do not assume it is due to agranulocytosis. These symptoms may be caused by other, less serious health conditions. If you experience any one of them, see your physician.
• Rapid onset of fever, chills, jaundice , weakness, or sore throat
• Bacterial pneumonia
• Ulcers in the mouth
• Bleeding gums
• Low white blood cell count
• Infections, including fungal
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history, and perform a physical exam. Tests may include the following:
• Blood test to determine white blood cell count
• Urine or other fluids may be tested for infectious agents if the person has a fever
• Bone marrow test ( biopsy and aspiration)
• Genetic tests may be needed in some people
• Antineutrophil antibodies may need to be tested for in people with autoimmune disease
Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include the following:
Transfusion of white blood cells to replace deficit may be of benefit in certain people.
Used to treat infection that could be causing agranulocytosis or resulting from agranulocytosis.
White Blood Cell-stimulating Factors
Depending on the cause, some people may benefit from treatments with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF).
Remove Causative Agent
Remove toxin/drug or treat primary disorder.
To help reduce your chances of getting agranulocytosis, take the following steps:
• Talk to your doctor about preventive measures when receiving white blood cell-reducing therapies.
o White blood cell-stimulating treatments such as G-CSF or GM-CSF
o Treatments to prevent the loss of white blood cells